Although people may use different terms for ADHD, it technically falls under the category of “mental illness”.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often misdiagnosed or underdiagnosed in adults. Because the recognition of adult ADHD as a true mental disorder and its symptomatology is similar to other conditions, primary care doctors often fail to diagnose ADHD in patients with inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. A significant proportion of adults with ADHD have comorbid mental disorders. Clinicians should recognize ADHD symptom patterns in adults and differentiate them from symptoms of other disorders, including mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders.

The co-occurrence of ADHD and other disorders often creates additional challenges for children, parents, caregivers, and health care providers. Therefore, it is important for health care providers to screen every child with ADHD for other disorders and problems. This page provides an overview of more common conditions and problems that can occur with ADHD. If you are concerned about your child’s symptoms, talk to your healthcare provider.

Behavior Problems

Children sometimes become angry or neglectful around adults, or respond aggressively when angered. If this behavior persists over time or becomes severe, they can develop into conduct disorder. Children with ADHD are more likely than other children to be diagnosed with Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder.

Offense against the opposition           

Children may be diagnosed with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) when they consistently behave in ways that cause serious problems at home, at school, or with peers. ODD is one of the most common co-occurring disorders of ADHD. ODD usually begins before the age of 8, but it can also occur in adolescence. Children with ODD may become hostile or aggressive around people they know well, such as family members or regular caregivers. Children with oddities show this behavior more often than other children of their age.

Examples of Odd Behavior include:

  • They often lose their temper
  • Arguing with an adult or refusing to obey an adult’s rules or requests
  • Often they are angry, resentful, or want to hurt someone who has hurt them or caused them trouble
  • Deliberately offending others; easily disturbed by others
  • Often blame other people for their mistakes or behavior

To Break the Rules

Conduct disorder (CD) is diagnosed when children show aggressive behavior and serious violations of norms and social norms at home, school, and with peers. This behavior can lead to violations of the law and jail time. ADHD makes the child more likely to be diagnosed with CD. Children with CD are more likely than other children to get hurt and have problems getting along with their peers.

A Learning Disability

Many children with ADHD also have learning disabilities (LD). In addition to other ADHD symptoms, difficulty paying attention, staying on task, or staying organized can prevent this child from doing well in school.

A learning disability means that a child has obvious difficulties in one or more areas, even if it does not affect their intelligence. Includes learning disabilities

  • Dyslexia is a reading difficulty
  • Dyscalculia is a math problem
  • Dysgraphia – difficulty writing


Many children have fear and anxiety. However, if a child experiences a lot of fear and anxiety at school, at home, or in the game, it is a cause for concern.


Feeling sad or hopeless from time to time is a part of every child’s life. Children can be troubled if they feel sad continuously and hopelessness. Children with ADHD develop childhood depression in children without ADHD. When they cannot control their ADHD symptoms, when their symptoms prevent them from doing well in school or getting along with family and friends, they can feel hopeless and sad.

Risk of injury

Children and adolescents with ADHD are more likely to be injured more often and more severely than their peers without ADHD. Research shows that children with ADHD are more likely

  • Get injured while walking or cycling
  • He must have suffered a head injury
  • Hospital for accidental poisoning

Oral health

Kids having ADHD have greater risk of oral and dental pain.

Health risks

The main symptoms of ADHD, such as impulsivity and inattention, can cause children to forget healthy and protective behaviors that can harm their health. If not addressed in time, this risk can lead to injury, illness, or death earlier-than-expected. In addition to injuries, children with ADHD have an increased risk of being overweight or obese.

Moreover, ADHD, like other neurological conditions, is often associated with comorbid psychiatric disorders. More than 60% of children with ADHD are reported to have one or more mental health conditions.

A common difficulty with this disorder is that its symptoms often overlap with ADHD. Because of this, accurate diagnosis is often very difficult. Misdiagnosis or delays in diagnosis can affect the patient’s mental health and quality of life.

Some children with ADHD have been reported to have bipolar disorder. They are characterized by periods of extreme happiness and periods of extreme anger or sadness.

Early diagnosis of mood disorders is important in managing this condition. Talking openly with family members and the patient’s doctor can be very helpful.

Despite the challenge of recognizing ADHD in adults with complex clinical presentations, there are effective treatments that have been shown to improve clinical and functional outcomes, including important elements of psychosocial functioning such as social relationships, workplace, and parenting skills. Recognition and successful management of ADHD in adults is exciting for clinicians. It is suggested that early and optimal treatment of ADHD can change the trajectory of mental illness down the road, preventing the development of mental disorders such as mood and anxiety disorders, or SUD.

Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review the available evidence on the prevalence, burden, and neurobiology of ADHD in adults, explain how it can help clinicians diagnose ADHD in patients with complex presentations, and inform appropriate management decisions to improve patient outcomes in this undertreated population. Recognizing that the evidence base continues to evolve and that quality evidence for the management of complex patient presentations is lacking, this article answers some common clinical questions based on available evidence as well as our collective experience in managing adults ADHD.

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